Bradykinin play different roles in different species

Bradykinin is the final product of the kallikrein–kinin system in the mammalian blood system, and is liberated from three types of kininogens: high molecular weight kininogens and low molecular weight kininogens encoded by a single gene. All three types consist of a heavy chain and light chain, connecting through a disulphide bridge[1]. kallikrein-kinin system is a complex multi-enzyme system composed of circulating and tissue kallikrein and kinin. It is well established that tissue kallikrein and kinin play crucial and diverse roles in cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. Bradykinin is a principal active agent of KKS, protects endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced senescence through the release of nitric oxide, which is mediated by B2 receptor activation, a previous research shows that BK B2 receptor knockout in diabetic mice leads to an accelerating aging phenotype, due to an increase of oxidative stress. they suggest that bradykinin and its receptor dysfunction is associated with aging. But the mechanism is unclear[2]

However, BK in amphibian shows extreme differences. Bradykinin is a kind peptide of amphibian skin, which including a large amount of antimicrobial peptides, physiological active peptides and neurotransmitter. BK and BRPs are produced from amphibian skin glands as immune defence peptides. BRPs from amphibians are widely studied not only for their diversity of BK homologues which are displayed as N-terminal, C-terminal extension, insertion and amino acid substitution[1,3].

Karebay can synthetic all kinds of bradykinin and other related peptide, such as Biotin – Bradykinin, Bradykinin (1-3), Galanin (1 – 13) – Bradykinin (2 – 9), amide, M35, [Des - Pro2] – Bradykinin; Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme (ACE I) Inhibitor, [Ile - Ser] – Bradykinin (T – Kinin), [Lys0] – Bradykinin (Kallidin). Karebay ( has a professional team devoted to peptide products synthesis and development. We offer high-quality peptide synthesis products for sale around the world, including over 1,000 catalog peptides, and nearly 100 pharmaceutical peptides and cosmetic peptides products.

Reference: [1]Xi X, Li B, Chen T,ea al. A review on bradykinin-related peptides isolated from amphibian skin secretion. Toxins (Basel). 2015, 7(3):951-970 [2] Ruolan Dong, Xizhen Xu, Geng Li, et al. Bradykinin Inhibits Oxidative Stress-Induced Cardiomyocytes Senescence via Regulating Redox State. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10): e77034 [3] Liu CY, Zhou LL, Cheng Q, et al.Effect of bradykinin on renal mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix secretion. Genet Mol Res. 2014, 13(1):490-498

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