Kisspeptins are a family of peptides encoded by the KISS1 gene.The KISS-1 gene encodes a 145-amino acid protein, which is cleaved into various forms including kisspeptin-54, kisspeptin-14, kisspeptin-13 and kisspeptin-10, named with respect to their length in amino acids. The Kiss-1 gene has been suggested as a suppressor of metastasis in a various types of cancer, including gastric cancer, oesophageal carcinoma, pancreatic, ovarian, bladder and prostate cancer, through the regulation of cellular migration and invasion.
Some researches have recently demonstrated the presence of kisspeptin and GPR54 mRNAs in both pancreatic B and A cells and GPR54 expression in MIN6 and αTC1 pancreatic cell lines. Kisspeptin-54 has been shown to stimulate the late phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion in mouse and human islets and to inhibit insulin secretion from MIN6 cells.kisspeptin-13 is tempting to speculate that the kisspeptin family may be implicated in the regulation of B-cell secretion. The lack of effect of kisspeptin-13 on both glucagon and somatostatin secretion would indicate that it influences the B cell directly, rather than through an A- or D-cell paracrine effect. Both kisspeptin-10 and kisspeptin-13, which is an extension of kisspeptin-10 by three amino acids, act directly at islet β-cells of various species to potentiate insulin secretion, and suggest that inhibitory effects reported in earlier studies may reflect differences in experimental protocols.
Kisspeptins has recently been identified by three different groups as endogenous ligands of the Kiss 1 receptor (Kiss-1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) also known as hOT7T175, AXOR12 or GPR54.
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