As we know, we call antimicrobial peptides and proteins AMPs for short. AMPS possess critical biological functions in organism.
The species of AMPS
Antimicrobial substances might have been noticed long time ago,discovered in saliva by Alexander Fleming in 1922 , is recognized as the first antimicrobial protein. AMPS we have found including:human definsins. Human Histatins: Two Genes Multiple Peptides, Human Cathelicidins: One Gene Multiple Peptides, Human Dermcidin, Human Hepcidins, Human AMPs Derived from Known Proteins, Antimicrobial Chemokines and AMPs from Human Immune Cells, Antimicrobial Neuropeptides, Beta-Amyloid Peptides, Human Antimicrobial Proteins.
The biological activity of AMPS
Antimicrobial activity is a common property of human AMPs, Understanding the elegant balance of AMPs in these processes in the healthy state as well as the factors that could tilt the balance to a diseased state may yield useful means for cancer treatment. The main role of AMPS is in warding off invading microbial pathogens. In addition, AMPs can possess other biological functions such as apoptosis, wound healing, and immune modulation. The activity of invading microbial pathogens is such as Antibacterial Activities, Antiviral Activity, Antifungal Activity, Antiparasitic Activity, Anticancer Activity, Cytotoxic Effects of Human AMPs.
As reported, By now, over 100 human AMPs have been identified and characterized. They were either isolated from human tissues or predicted from the human genome by bioinformatics. including skin, eyes, ears, mouths, gut, immune, nervous and urinary systems. These peptides vary from 10 to 150 amino acids with a net charge between −3 and +20 and a hydrophobic content below 60%. The sequence diversity of AMPs in directly determines their structural and functional diversity. We hope we can find more AMPS and know the functional mechanism more clearly in future as the biotechnology developing.
Reference Guangshun Wang, Human Antimicrobial Peptides and Proteins,Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2014,7(5): 545–594.