Fibroblast growth factors, or FGFs, are a family of growth factors, with members involved in angiogenesis, wound healing, embryonic development and various endocrine signaling pathways. The FGFs are heparin-binding proteins and interactions with cell-surface-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been shown to be essential for FGF signal transduction. FGFs are key players in the processes of proliferation and differentiation of wide variety of cells and tissues .
Fibroblast growth factor was found in pituitary extracts by Armelin in 1973 and then was also found in a cow brain extract by Gospodarowicz, et al., and tested in a bioassay that caused fibroblasts to proliferate (first published report in 1974).
They then further fractionated the extract using acidic and basic pH and isolated two slightly different forms that were named “acidic fibroblast growth factor” (FGF1) and “basic fibroblast growth factor” (FGF2). These proteins had a high degree of amino acid identity but were determined to be distinct mitogens. Human FGF2 occurs in low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms. LMW FGF2 is primarily cytoplasmic and functions in an autocrine manner, whereas HMW FGF2s are nuclear and exert activities through an intracrine mechanism.
Not long after FGF1 and FGF2 were isolated, another group isolated a pair of heparin-binding growth factors that they named HBGF-1 and HBGF-2, while a third group isolated a pair of growth factors that caused proliferation of cells in a bioassay containing blood vessel endothelium cells, which they called ECGF1 and ECGF2. These proteins were found to be identical to the acidic and basic FGFs described by Gospodarowicz, et al.
The mammalian fibroblast growth factor receptor family has 4 members, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4. The FGFRs consist of three extracellular immunoglobulin-type domains (D1-D3), a single-span trans-membrane domain and an intracellular split tyrosine kinase domain. FGFs interact with the D2 and D3 domains, with the D3 interactions primarily responsible for ligand-binding specificity (see below). Heparan sulfate binding is mediated through the D3 domain. A short stretch of acidic amino acids located between the D1 and D2 domains has auto-inhibitory functions. This ‘acid box’ motif interacts with the heparan sulfate binding site to prevent receptor activation in the absence of FGFs.
Alternate mRNA splicing gives rise to ‘b’ and ‘c’ variants of FGFRs 1, 2 and 3. Through this mechanism seven different signaling FGFR sub-types can be expressed at the cell surface. Each FGFR binds to a specific subset of the FGFs. Similarly most FGFs can bind to several different FGFR subtypes. FGF1 is sometimes referred to as the ‘universal ligand’ as it is capable of activating all 7 different FGFRs. In contrast, FGF7 (keratinocyte growth factor, KGF) binds only to FGFR2b (KGFR).
The signaling complex at the cell surface is believed to be a ternary complex formed between two identical FGF ligands, two identical FGFR subunits, and either one or two heparan sulfate chains.
FGFs are multifunctional proteins with a wide variety of effects; they are most commonly mitogens but also have regulatory, morphological, and endocrine effects. They have been alternately referred to as “pluripotent” growth factors and as “promiscuous” growth factors due to their multiple actions on multiple cell types. Promiscuous refers to the biochemistry and pharmacology concept of how a variety of molecules can bind to and elicit a response from single receptor. In the case of FGF, four receptor subtypes can be activated by more than twenty different FGF ligands. Thus the functions of FGFs in developmental processes include mesoderm induction, antero-posterior patterning, limb development, neural induction and neural development, and in mature tissues/systems angiogenesis, keratinocyte organization, and wound healing processes. One important function of FGF1 and FGF2 is the promotion of endothelial cell proliferation and the physical organization of endothelial cells into tube-like structures. They thus promote angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature. FGF1 and FGF2 are more potent angiogenic factors than vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). FGF1 has been shown in clinical experimental studies to induce angiogenesis in the heart.
As well as stimulating blood vessel growth, FGFs are important players in wound healing. FGF1 and FGF2 stimulate angiogenesis and the proliferation of fibroblasts that give rise to granulation tissue, which fills up a wound space/cavity early in the wound-healing process. FGF7 and FGF10 (also known as Keratinocyte Growth Factors KGF and KGF2, respectively) stimulate the repair of injured skin and mucosal tissues by stimulating the proliferation, migration and differentiation of epithelial cells, and they have direct chemotactic effects on tissue remodeling.
Karebay can synthetic FGF with Modified amino acids, so that scientists can knew more details about its molecular mechanism.
Karebay (www.karebaybio.com) has a professional team devoted to peptide products synthesis and development. We offer high-quality peptide synthesis products for sale around the world, including over 1,000 catalog peptides, and nearly 100 pharmaceutical peptides and cosmetic peptides products. Reference  Finklestein S.P., Plomaritoglou A. (2001). “Growth factors”. In Miller L.P., Hayes R.L., eds. Co-edited by Newcomb J.K. Head Trauma: Basic, Preclinical, and Clinical Directions. New York: Wiley. pp. 165–187.  Itoh N, Ornitz DM (January 2008). “Functional evolutionary history of the mouse Fgf gene family”. Dev. Dyn. 237 (1): 18–27.  Fukumoto S (2008). “Actions and mode of actions of FGF19 subfamily members”. Endocr. J. 55 (1): 23–31.