Cell Cycle

The cell cycle, also referred to as the cell-division cycle, is a series of events that occur in a cell that leads to its division and duplication (replication). The cell cycle is divided into five phases: the gap in DNA replication (G1), DNA synthesis phase (S), the gap after DNA replication (G2), mitosis phase (M) and the quiescent phase (G0)[1]. The ability to identify cell cycle position through DNA content analysis is critical to investigating cell cycle–regulated protein expression and assessing perturbations in cell cycle progression. The cell cycle encompasses three important targets to investigate its function in human disease. These targets are mitogen signaling cascades, cell cycle checkpoints and cyclin / CDK complexes. Mitogen signaling cascades include the growth factor and MAPK family and its kinases. Inhibitors of mitogen signaling cascades have been applied to the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), gastrointestinal stromal tumors and rheumatoid arthritis [2]. Cell cycle checkpoints are important regulatory pathways in the control of cell cycle conversions and DNA replication [2] [3]. Checkpoint pathway inhibitors serve as potential drug intervention agents in cancer chemotherapy. Cyclin / CDK complexes play a key role in controlling the replication of centrosomes and DNA in interphase and mitosis [4] [5]. The role of CDKs in the cell cycle is increasingly elevating them as attractive drug targets, and the CDK inhibitors have been deployed therapeutically in the treatment of neurological diseases.

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[1] Hartwell L H, Weinert T A. Checkpoints: controls that ensure the order of cell cycle events[J]. Science, 1989, 246(4930): 629-634.
[2] Gray N S, Wodicka L, Thunnissen A M W H, et al. Exploiting chemical libraries, structure, and genomics in the search for kinase inhibitors[J]. Science, 1998, 281(5376): 533-538.
[3] Elledge S J. Cell cycle checkpoints: preventing an identity crisis[J]. Science, 1996, 274(5293): 1664-1672.
[4] Murray A W. Recycling the cell cycle: cyclins revisited[J]. Cell, 2004, 116(2): 221-234.
[5] Orlando D A, Lin C Y, Bernard A, et al. Global control of cell-cycle transcription by coupled CDK and network oscillators[J]. Nature, 2008, 453(7197): 944-947.

DNA synthesis/repair       
rRNA synthesis       

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