Transporters are membrane channels/carrier proteins. Transporters can assist in the movement of ions, small molecules, or macromolecules across the biological membrane by facilitated diffusion or active transport. Examples of transporters include glucose transporters, ion pumps/transporters, multidrug transporters, neurotransmitter transporters and aquaporin[1] [2]. Transporters can also be divided into three main classes: ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters), P-type ATPases and the solute carrier family (SLC). ABC transporters, such as P-gp, utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across cellular membranes. [3] [4] P-gp inhibitors effectively reverse Pgp mediated drug resistance and improve drug bioavailability. [5] P-type ATPases include Na+-, K+-, H+-, Ca2+-, and H+-ATPases. P-type ATPase inhibitors are used in the medical treatment of congestive heart failure, dyspeptic conditions and prostate cancer.[6] Members of the solute carrier family (SLC) play an important role in efflux transport, especially for organic anions. Members of this transporter family include organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO) and organic anion transporters (OAT/SLC22A). OAT inhibitors can prevent efflux of indoxyl sulfate and HVA. [7]

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[3] Borst P, et al. Mammalian ABC transporters in health and disease. Annu Rev Biochem. 2002, 71: 537-592.
[4] Marchetti S, et al. Concise review: Clinical relevance of drug drug and herb drug interactions mediated by the ABC transporter ABCB1 (MDR1, P-glycoprotein). Oncologist. 2007, 12(8): 927-941.
[5] Varma MV, et al. P-glycoprotein inhibitors and their screening: a perspective from bioavailability enhancement. Pharmacol Res. 2003, 48(4): 347-359.
[6] Yatime L, et al. P-type ATPases as drug targets: tools for medicine and science. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009, 1787(4): 207-220.
[7] Sweet DH. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005, 204(3): 198-215.

5-HT transporter       
Calcium channel       
Chloride channel       
GABA receptor       
P2X receptor       
Potassium channel       
Proton pump       
Sodium channel       

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