Endocrinology deals with the integration of developmental events, proliferation, growth and differentiation (including histogenesis and organogenesis). It also is involved in the coordination of metabolism, respiration, excretion, movement, reproduction and sensory perception, depending upon the chemical cues as well as the substances synthesized and secreted by specialized cells. Endocrinology has been a focus of many research areas, such as hormone receptors (including estrogen, androgen,, aldosterone and progesterone receptors), aromatase and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH). Estrogen receptors have the potential to enhance the activities of a wide range of heterologous transcription factors. Estrogen receptor antagonists have positive impact in the treatment of breast cancer. The androgen receptor is a ligand-dependent transcription activator, which is an important mediator of prostate cancer growth and survival. The aldosterone receptor belongs the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, stroke, malignant nephrosclerosis and cardiac fibrosis. Aldosterone receptor antagonist drugs are used in clinical practice. Progesterone receptors have two distinct forms, hPR-A and hPR-B. In various experimental animal tumor models, different progesterone antagonists show a greater antitumor activity than tamoxifen or high-dose progestins.  Aromatase is the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, and the aromatase inhibitor is a milestone in the treatment of anovulatory infertility. Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) are common signaling molecules used by the brain to regulate reproduction in all vertebrates. GnRH and its analogs are used extensively for the treatment of hormone-dependent diseases and assist with reproductive techniques.
Reference Learn More
 Kushner PJ, et al. Estrogen receptor pathways to AP-1. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. 2000, 74: 311-317.
 Gelmann EP, et al. Molecular biology of the androgen receptor. Journal of clinical oncology. 2002, 20 (13): 3001-3015.
 Maron BA, et al. Aldosterone receptor antagonists: effective but often forgotten. Circulation. 2010, 121 (7): 934-939.
 Wen DX, et al. The A and B isoforms of the human progesterone receptor operate through distinct signaling pathways within target cells. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1994, 14 (12): 8356-8364.
 Polyzos NP, et al. Aromatase inhibitors for female infertility: a systematic review of the literature. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009, 19 (4): 456-471.
 Fernald RD, et al. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone genes: phylogeny, structure, and functions. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 1999, 20 (3): 224-240.
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