Viruses are small infectious agents that can only replicate inside the living cells of an organism and can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria. The main classes of viruses include DNA viruses, RNA viruses, and reverse transcribing viruses. RNA viruses include SARS coronavirus, influenza, hepatitis C, West Nile, poliovirus and measles. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) polymerase is required for replication of the viral genome and is a key target for therapeutic intervention against HCV.[1] Neuraminidase (NA) is another drug target against influenza viruses and neuraminidase inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of human influenza virus infection.[2] HIV is a reverse transcribing virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Currently, heat shock proteins (Hsps), cyclophilins (Cyps), FK binding proteins (FKBPs) and CCR5 are therapeutic targets for HIV-infections. The biological response antagonists which have specific high-affinity interactions with these targets above include cyclosporins, FK-506, and cyclopentenone prostaglandins.[3] Integrase is also essential for HIV replication and several integrase inhibitors have been developed.[4] Other antiviral drugs that inhibit the reverse transcriptase enzyme include zidovudine and lamivudine.

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[1]. Di Marco S, et al. Interdomain communication in hepatitis C virus polymerase abolished by small molecule inhibitors bound to a novel allosteric site. J Biol Chem. 2005, 280(33): 29765-29770.
[2]. Feng E, et al. Recent advances in neuraminidase inhibitor development as anti-influenza drugs. ChemMedChem. 2012, 7(9): 1527-1536.
[3]. Huff JR, et al. HIV protease: a novel chemotherapeutic target for AIDS. J Med Chem. 1991, 34(8): 2305-2314.
[4]. Malet I, et al. The future of integrase inhibitors of HIV-1. Curr Opin Virol. 2012, 2(5): 580-587.

HCV Protease       
HIV protease       
Reverse transcriptase       
Viral DNA synthesis       
Viral replication       

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