The bioactive peptides in human milk

As reported, human milk contains many kinds of bioactive compounds including several soluble proteins like lactoferrin, cytokines, growth factors, nucleotides, antibodies to bacterial, viral, and protozoal antigens for compensating physiological delay in developing immune systems in growing infants. So it has been considered as the ideal food for the infants. Such compounds may contain an assembly of functions, Interestingly, most of the time, the wide variety of bioactivities are accomplished by the combination of bioactive proteins or by gastrointestinal release of bioactive peptides derived from larger proteins. Remarkably, some functions are not directly attributed to the parental proteins, but solely to bioactive fragment peptides.

In the new research, 24 peptides was separated and purified from human milk using RP-HPLC. Multifunctional roles including antimicrobial, antioxidant and growth stimulating activity have been evaluated 24 fractions. In the result. The majority of fractions (50%) have peptides with molecular masses between 2 and 5 kD and only four fractions( fractions) show multiple combined activities among them. Using a proteomic approach, two of these four peptides have been identified as lactoferrin derived peptide and kappa casein short chain peptide. In the light of these findings, human milk derived specific multifunctional peptides may provide a value added product in the nutraceutical and cosmetic industries, and particularly for the better development of neonates.


milkSanti M. Mandal, Rashmi Bharti, William F. Porto. Identification of multifunctional peptides from human milk, Peptides, 56 (2014): 84–93.

What the blueberry can do

We all like the blueberry, Blueberry pancakes make any breakfast seem special. In earlier studies, the blueberry shows an important role in protection against 17β-estradiol (E2)-mediated mammary tumorigenesis. Berries are gaining increasing importance lately for their chemopreventive and therapeutic potential against several Cancers.

Berries have received much attention lately due to their cancer chemopreventive potential. There is growing evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies that consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of developing cancer. Berries are rich in anthocyanins, which are considered to be a good candidate for preventing the development of cancer by protecting cells. This study tested both preventive and therapeutic activities of diet supplemented with whole blueberry powder (50:50 blend of Tifblue and Rubel). The consumption of BB can be used as an effective strategy for the treatment of E2-associated breast cancer and possible prevention of its relapse and metastasis. Our study demonstrates the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of blueberry and advances our understanding of the working mechanisms in search of potential future drugs.

Jeyabalan J, Aqil F, Munagala R, et al. Chemopreventive and therapeutic activity of dietary blueberry against estrogen-mediated breast cancer[J]. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 2013.

Progress in the peptidomics of in malignant tumor.

Peptidomics refers to all endogenous peptides in the living cell nuclei fluids. The academic of peptidomics studies the function and structure of the peptidomics as well as diversification rules and correlation. Peptides rich in body fluid is potiential biomarker. So the main resource of peptidomics study is serum peptide. Being a complementary method of protemics. Serum peptidomics maintain a character of simple structure. less than 1.0*104 molecular weight, High specialty and easy for synthetize. which arouse the academics and medicine attention in clinical protemics at present.

Peptidomics has been widely used in many fields. as a biomarker for diagnosis of diseases. Serum peptidomics can be used to assess the severity of disease, the development of disease and the effect of Intervention. Many research were carried on the peptidomics in disease diagnosis at present . which is in cancer, asthma. Rheumatism, pneumonia, but most in tumor. Serum peptidomics as diagnosis methods still have many problems to be resolved. This kind of method is low intensity, low specificity and lacks of repetition. However, with the progress of technology of peptide separation and identification, these problems will eventually be resolved


liuying, zhongliaping. Progress in the peptidomics of in malignant tumor. International Journal of Stomatology.2013,40(2):233-236

How to storage the peptide?

Lyophilized peptides should be stored at -20℃, away from bright light. Most lyophilized peptides are stable for several years under these conditions. However some special amino acids exsit in sequence curtail the storage time. It should adopt special storage methods. For example, Peptide sequences containing C, M, or W are prone to air oxidation. It is recommended to purge the air out of the vial and replace it with a blanket of nitrogen or argon.

peptide solutions are stable for up to a week at 4°C. it is very limted shelf life. especially for sequences containing cysteine, methionine, tryptophan, asparginine, glutamine, and N-terminal glutamic acid. To prolong the storage life of peptides in solution, sterile buffers with a pH of around 5-6 should be used. Aliquots should be stored at -20°C or colder wherever possible.

In general:

  •  Repeated freeze-thaw cycles should be avoided for both lyophilized catalog peptides and peptide solutions.
  • The peptide-containing vial should be tightly capped at all times.
  • It is also recommended that the peptide be dissolved to the highest possible concentration, and then diluted with water or buffer to the working concentration.

The structrue of amino acid

Name Abbreviation MW MF structure
Alanine A or Ala 89.09 C3H7NO2
Arginine R or Arg 174.20 C6H14N4O2
Asparagine N or Asn 132.12 C4H8N2O3
Aspartic acid D or Asp 133.11 C4H7NO4
Cysteine C or Cys 121.16 C3H7NO2S
Glutamine Q or Gln 146.14 C5H10N2O3
Glutamic acid E or Glu 147.13 C5H9NO4
Glycine G or Gly  75.07  C2H5NO2
Histidine H or His 155.15 C6H9N3O2
Isoleucine I or Ile 131.18 C6H13NO2
Leucine L or Leu 131.17 C6H13NO2
Lysine K or Lys 146.19  C6H14N2O2
Methionine M or Met 149.21 C5H11NO2S
Phenylalanine F or Phe 165.19 C9H11NO2
Proline P or Pro 115.13 C5H9NO2
Serine S or Ser 105.09 C3H7NO3
Threonine T or Thr 119.12 C4H9NO3
Tryptophan W or Trp 204.22 C11H12N2O2
Tyrosine Y or Tyr 181.19 C9H11NO3
Valine V or Val  117.15 C5H11NO2


The research progress of Nuclear-Factor kappa B

Nuclear-Factor kappa B (NF-kB) is an inducible transcription factor of the Rel family, sequestered in the cytoplasm by the IkB family of proteins. NF-kB exists in several dimeric forms, but the p50/p65 heterodimer is the predominant one. Activation of NF-kB by a range of physical, chemical, and biological stimuli leads to phosphorylation and proteasome dependent degradation of IkB, leading to the release of free NF-kB.It is important in DAN binding,human disease,such as cancer,AUDS(HIV-1),Ageing,headaches,catabolic disorder ect and inflammatory diseases which include rheumatoid arthritis, atherogenesis, multiple,sclerosis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating, polyradiculoneuritis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease etc.and Viral Diseases and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Recent studies show that The influences of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) gene silencing on the proliferation of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells exposed to hypoxia and its possible mechanism were investigated. In SGC-7901 cells exposed to hypoxic conditions, there might be an interaction between HIF-1α and NF-κB. The suppression of NF-κB expression could inhibit the proliferative ability of gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells under hypoxic conditions via down-regulation of HIF-1α and PLD-1 expressions.

Many viruses can hijack the host cell NF-κB as part of their life cycle, diverting NF-κB immune regulatory functions to favor their replications.

Recent progress in the field of nuclear I κ Bs has provided important insights into the transcriptional regulation of inflammatory cytokines controlled by NF- κ B. Nuclear I κ Bs may contribute to the epigenetic modulation of gene loci for optimal activation and transcriptional silencing.A wide variety of environmental cues, including inflammatory cytokines, ligands for pattern recognition receptors and endogenous danger signals, activate the inducible transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is a central regulator of inflammatory and immune responses. Excessive activation of NF-κB results in the development of severe diseases, such as chronic inflammatory disorders, autoimmune diseases and cancer.

We look forward to the Second Generation Inhibitors

Recently a special issue is meant to provide a forum for the communication of new and exciting research in these and other emerging areas, both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry. It will publish a Special Issue dedicated to New Frontiers on Kinases, with the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry focusing on second generation inhibitors. For 2015, worldwide sales of 20 billion USD are forecasted for marketed kinase drugs.

Nowdays, therapeutic requirements change compared to cancer and the quest for kinase inhibitors with greater selectivity takes center stage, for example, syk-, p38-, and JAK-inhibitors for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These recent developments will stimulate the search for safer (more selective) kinase inhibitors to treat chronic, nonlethal diseases.

The development of inhibitors of kinases that target lipids rather than proteins (such as PI3- or PI4-kinase) represents another likely growth area which represents an area where medicinal chemistry and chemical biology me. Last but not least, there are many neglected kinases. Although inhibitors for ∼100 different kinases have been reported, as stated above, most of the extensive research efforts .

We look forward to receiving many exciting contributions over the coming months